Seminar X : From/Of Anguish [De l’angoisse] : 1962-1963 : begins 14th November 1962 : Jacques Lacan

by Julia Evans on November 14, 1962



Published in English

Published in French

Date of Sessions, Page numbers together with Jacques Lacan’s references & quotations: Cormac Gallagher’s translation (

Date of Sessions, Chapter number & Jacques-Alain Miller’s headings : Adrian Price’s translation.

Links to Freud on ‘Anxiety

Note about Sacha Nacht & Timeline


This is the start of a work-in-progress to track down the references to which Lacan refers in Seminar X.  In particular, help is requested on references to Freud and finding on-line copies in English to Kierkegaard and Hegel and………..  [Updated 19th December 2011, 23rd December 2011, 7th January 2012, 21st October 2012, 18th February 2014, 31st July 2018]

Note :  [Updated 7.1.2012]   In the Walter Lowrie, 1957 translation, Kierkegaard’s title is translated as ‘The concept of dread’.  I prefer this translation of L’Angoisse.  {‘The Concept of Dread’ trans. by Walter Lowrie, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1957.}

Note on Translation, July 2022

Change of title – So Jacques Lacan actually calls this seminar ‘de l’angoisse’ – ‘of anguish’.

Sigmund Freud uses the term ‘angst’. This has been translated by James Strachey as ‘anxiety’.

Translations from the internet:

Angst: anxiety; fear; fright; panic; terror; stuffiness; oppression; heaviness; sinking feeling

Angst → anxiety, fear, fright, dread

Angst → fear of failure, anxiety, anguish, dread, apprehension, fear, fright, trepidation, alarm

Jacques Lacan, who read Sigmund Freud in the original German, translates ‘angst’ from German into French as ‘l’angoisse’.

Cormac Gallagher & Adrian Price both translate ‘l’angoisse’ as ‘Anxiety’. This is a mistake. It is almost certain that Seminar X should be called, Of Anguish (de l’angoisse) & the references to ‘anxiety’ should be changed to ‘anguish’.

In La Troisième (The Third) : 1st November 1974 (Rome) : Jacques Lacan, notes & information here, Jacques Lacan states,

French, from from   /La Troisième de Jacques Lacan 1-11-74

C’est ce que manifeste ce phénomène curieux sur quoi j’ai fait un séminaire toute une année et que j’ai dénommé de l’angoisse. L’angoisse c’est justement quelque chose qui se situe ailleurs dans notre corps, …

Translated by Yolande Szczech,

It’s this which demonstrates this curious phenomenon, on which I gave a seminar for a whole year, and which I named anxiety. Anxiety, it’s precisely something which is located elsewhere in our body, it’s the feeling that arises as a result of this suspicion that comes to us, of being reduced to our body.

Yolande Szczech writes :“I am not a French scholar. I was just frustrated at the lack of an English translation of this key text, so I took matters into my own hands. I apologise for any mistakes.

This translation is based on Pierre‐Alain Lecat’s transcription of Lacan’s lecture, known henceforth as the Staferla version (Lecat, 2015) but I have also made use of Patrick Valas’ version (Valas, 2015). When I was in doubt about the text, I referred to Valas’ audio recording (Lacan, 1974).

P75 of, available  /#53  (La troisième—3 translations, including the official translation)


Jacques Lacan’s opening sentence is ‘Je vais vous parler cette année de l’angoisse.’ – ‘I am going to speak to you this year of anguish’. (Julia Evans’ translation), as in the transcription published at  

So Jacques Lacan actually calls this seminar ‘de l’angoisse’ – ‘of anguish’.

I will start correcting this on both my sites.

Julia Evans – July 2022

Published in English :

– Translated by Cormac Gallagher from unedited tapes, see, available here

– Translated by Adrian Price, Edited by Jacques-Alain Miller, ‘The Seminar, Book X, Anxiety,’ by Jacques Lacan,  Polity, Cambridge, 2014.

Published in French :

Jacques Lacan: Le Séminaire, Livre X, L’Angoisse:  Paris, Seuil:  June 9, 2004

Transcription published at  or You may have to search on Séminaire IV de Jacques Lacan – usually on the second page of links!

Related Texts

Texts on Seminar X

The Concept of Dread (Anxiety) : 1844: Søren Kierkegaard : Available here.     Further details of Kierkegaard’s publications are available here.

Relieve Anxiety? : December 2003 : Éric Laurent or here

Introduction to the Reading of Jacques Lacan’s Seminar X (Angoisse) : April, May & June 2004 : Jacques-Alain Miller  or here

On the False usefulness of Anxiety and the Benefits of Working through it : October 2004 : François Leguil or here

Commentary : Jean-Louis Gault : The Option of Anxiety : October 2004. Published in the International Lacanian Review : October 2004 : Download Further texts on Seminar X  or  here, by Jean-Louis Gault

Anxiety Constituent and Constituted : (probably Paris) November 2005 : Jacques-Alain Miller  or here

The function of the anxiety : 13th July 2006 (Rome) : François Leguil or here

Objects a in the analytic experience : 15th July 2006 (Rome) : Jacques-Alain Miller or  here

On Lacan’s remarks on Chinese Poetry in Seminar XXIV : November 2009 : Adrian Price or here

Some relations between Jacques Lacan and Søren Kierkegaard: Seminars II, VII, X, XVII, XX & two of the Écrits by Julia Evans on 16th  December 2011 or here

The Sadeian position in Jacques Lacan’s Seminar X & LacanianWorks posts by Julia Evans on 16th January 2012 or here

Many texts by Sigmund Freud can be found bilingual at or Sigmund Freud’s texts available electronically   or here

Date of Sessions, Page numbers together with Jacques Lacan’s references & quotations: Cormac Gallagher’s translation (

This is a work in progress and please contact me with any other missing references.

General Notes:

Lacan and Topology by Bruno de Florence : 8th October 2011

The function of the anxiety : 13th July 2006 (Rome) : François Leguil or here

I           14th November 1962 : pI 2 to pI 10

(p5) Some relations between Jacques Lacan and Søren Kierkegaard: Seminars II, VII, X, XVII, XX & two of the Écrits or here

II         21st November 1962 : pII 11 to pII 19 


Charles Blondel: La conscience morbide: 1919 (Translations available) JE will look for an on-line version.

The Concept of Dread (Anxiety) : 1844: Søren Kierkegaard : Available here.  Further details of Kierkegaard’s publications are available here.

G. W. F. Hegel: Phenomenology of the Spirit: 1807 Further references or on-line editions to be found.

pII 13-14 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : David Rapaport (1953): On the psychoanalytic theory of affects: published in International Journal of Psychoanalysis: Vol 34, 3rd part: 1953: p166 – 198, See  On the psychoanalytic theory of affects : Autumn 1953 : David Rapaport  or  here


(p5) Some relations between Jacques Lacan and Søren Kierkegaard: Seminars II, VII, X, XVII, XX & two of the Écrits or here

pII 15 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation quoted in Tracking Jacques Lacan’s development of the use of ‘logos’by Julia Evans updated on 1stAugust 2018 or here  

pII 15 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation, : what I began to indicate to you about something which goes further, namely that anxiety [may be from l’angoisse which is anguish] is this certain relationship which I have only imaged up to now. I recalled for you the last time the image, with the sketch I re-evoked of my presence, my very modest and embarrassed presence in the presence of the giant praying mantis, I already told you more therefore in saying to you: this is related to the desire of the Other. :
 may be related to Hate in the Counter-Transference : 5th February 1947 (London) : Donald W. Winnicott  See here or  or

III        28th November 1962 : pIII 20 to pIII 28


Claude Lévy-Strauss: La pensée sauvage:  References to be found.

The Interpretation of Dreams: 1st November 1899 (published as 1900): Sigmund Freud : Available here

IV        5th December 1962 : pIV 29 to pIV 36

V         12th December 1962 : pV 37 to pV 46


Probable reference to Sacha Nacht – see the note below.

Notes on Sacha Nacht What is concealed by the so-called “Cht” and why? : 9th March 2019 : Réginald Blanchet or here


pV 37  Probably  The Curative Factors in Psycho-Analysis : July-August 1961 (Edinburgh) : Sacha Nacht  or  here

pV 41 Ernest Jones (1910) : ‘Pathology of the Nightmare’ printed in Ernest Jones, ‘On Nightmares’ , International Psycho-analytical Library, The Hogarth Press, 1931 :

See On Nightmares : 1931 : Ernest Jones or here for notes & availability & quotation from pV 41 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation of this session


The Flavour of Nightmare by Oriol Corbacho, 30th November 2019, LRO 195, See   or  or with notes  /Authors a-z  (Corbacho) or authors by date  (November 2019) p61 of Adrian Price’s translation = Seminar X : 12th December 1962 : pV 41 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation quotes : Ernest Jones (1910) : ‘Pathology of the Nightmare’

VI        19th December 1962 : pVI 47 to pVI  55

Quotation given from pVI 49 & 50-51 of  Cormac Gallagher in On Lacan’s remarks on Chinese Poetry in Seminar XXIV : November 2009 : Adrian Price or here  for ‘Anxiety is framed’ & ‘Anxiety is not without an object.’

VII       9th January 1963 : pVII 56 to pVII 66

pVII 57-58 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation quoted in An Encounter with a Statue : 26th October 2019 : Yaron Gilat  : See here

VIII     16th January 1963 : pVIII 67 to pVIII 76

Quotation from pVIII 73  of Cormac Gallagher given On Lacan’s remarks on Chinese Poetry in Seminar XXIV : November 2009 : Adrian Price or here


(p?) Some relations between Jacques Lacan and Søren Kierkegaard: Seminars II, VII, X, XVII, XX & two of the Écrits or here


Footnote 3 of Emilia Cece – Brain or drive  29th January 2019   In “The Irreconcilable of contingency” Available in English  : ‘When Lacan specifies in Seminar X that the object of desire (3) has a dual nature of cause and aim’, : p119 in the French text

There are difficulties with this reference as it appears not to be correct.  p119 is the beginning of Seminar X : 16th January 1963. It may be that the whole session is being referenced.

However it is more likely to be the following:

Seminar X : 16th January 1963   pVIII 68 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation :

You know how, in the progress of epistemology, the isolation of the notion of cause has produced considerable difficulties. It is not without a series of reductions which end up by leading it to the most tenuous and the most equivocal function that the notion of cause was able to be maintained in the development of what in the largest sense we could call our physics.

It is clear on the other hand that whatever reduction one submits it to, what one might call the mental function of this notion cannot be eliminated, reduced to a sort of metaphysical shadow. We clearly sense that there is something, which it is too little to say that is a recourse to intuition, which makes it subsist, which remains around this function of cause, and I claim that it is starting from the re-examination that we can make of it, starting from analytic experience, that the whole Critique of Pure Reason, brought up to date with our science, could re-establish a correct status of cause.

I scarcely dare to say to introduce it – for after all what I am going to formulate is here only a discourse event and scarcely anchored in this dialectic – I would say then, to fix our aims, what I intend to make you understand. The object, the object a, this object which is not to be situated in anything whatsoever which is analogous to the intentionality of an noeme, which is not in the intentionality of desire, this object ought to be conceived by us as the cause of desire, and, to take up my metaphor of a little while ago, the object is behind desire.


Comments on Love as “giving what you do not have”

From Seminar IV : 23rd January 1957

See Seminar IV : The Object Relation & Freudian Structures 1956-1957 : begins 21st November 1956 : Jacques Lacan or here

Para 28  : I indicated that, in accordance with the hysterical structure, the hysteric is someone who loves by proxy: you can see this in a host of observations of hysterics. The hysteric is someone whose object is homosexual, and who approaches this homosexual object by way of identification with someone of the opposite sex.

Para 32 :   In other words, this situation rests on the distinction that I made with regard to primitive frustration, with regard to what can be established in the mother-child relation – that is, the distinction that the object belongs to the subject only after her being stripped of it. It is only after this frustration that her desire subsists, and this frustration only has a meaning insofar as the object subsists after the frustration has occurred. The situation rests on the differentiation that is made in the mother’s intervention at this point – that is, in another register, whether she gives or does not give and whether this giving is or is not a sign of love. Here the father is made to be the one who gives this missing object symbolically. But he does not give it, because he does not have it. The phallic deficiency of the father is what traverses the whole observation as an absolutely fundamental and constitutive ingredient of the situation.

From notes to p96-97 of Jacqueline Rose’s translation of ‘Guiding Remarks’

Love as “giving what you do not have” is also referred to in the Notes to p96-97 of Jacqueline Rose’s translation, Guiding Remarks for a Congress on Feminine Sexuality : 1958 [Presented in Amsterdam, 5th September 1960] : Jacques Lacan See notes here

Love as “giving what you do not have” is a major theme in Seminar VIII

Information and Notes Seminar VIII : Transference : 1960-1961 : Begins 16th November 1960 : Jacques Lacan or here  See p46 & 121 of Bruce Fink’s translation :

Seminar VIII : 23rd November 1960 : p26 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : The second thing that I wanted to say – as you will see – that we rediscover at every moment, which will serve us as a guide, is that love is to give what one does not have. This you will also see arriving at one of the essential hinges of what we will have to encounter in our commentary.

Seminar VIII 18th January 1961 : p105-106 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : But the good thing about feasts is precisely that at them there happen things which upset the ordinary order and that Poros falls asleep. He falls asleep because he is drunk, which is what allows Aporia to make herself pregnant by him, namely to have

this offspring which is called Love and whose date of conception coincides then with the birth-date of Aphrodite. This indeed is why it is explained to us that Love will always have some obscure relationship with beauty, which is what is in question in the whole development of Diotima, and it is because Aphrodite is a beautiful goddess.

Here then the matter is clearly put. The fact is that on the one hand it is the masculine which is desirable and that, it is the feminine which is active, this at least is how things happen at the moment of the birth of Love and, when one formulates “love is giving what one does not have”, believe me, I am not the one who is telling you this in connection with this text in order to produce one of my hobby horses, it is quite evident that this is what is in question here because the poor Penia, by definition, by structure has properly speaking nothing to give, except her constitutive lack, aporia. And what allows me to tell you that I am not forcing things here, is that if you refer to number 202a of the text of the Symposium you will find the expression “to give what one does not have” literally written there in the form of the development which starting from there Diotima is going to give to the function of love, namely: aneu tou echein logon dounai – it fits exactly, in connection with the discourse, the formula “to give what one does not have” – it is a question here of giving a discourse, a valid explanation, without having it. It is a question of the moment when, in her development, Diotima is going to be led to say what love belongs to. Well, love belongs to a zone, to a form of affair, a form of thing, a form of pragma, a form of praxis which is at the same level, of the same quality as doxa, namely the following which exists, namely that there are discourses, ways of behaving, opinions – this is the translation that we give to the term doxa – which are true without the subject being able to know it.

Seminar X : 16th January 1963 : Information and Notes :  Seminar X: The Anxiety (or Dread): 1962-1963: begins 14th November 1962: Jacques Lacan    or here

Note : This is Footnote 2 to The Periphrastic Silence of Kiki Dimoula: A Tribute by George B. Mitropoulos, 18th March 2020 : Circulated by New Lacanian School of Psychoanalysis/Messager  : Published by   See   here

pVIII 73-74 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : That this place as such can be circumscribed by something which is materialised in this image, a certain edge, a certain opening, a certain gap where the constitution of the specular image shows its limits, this is the elective locus of anxiety.

This phenomenon of edge, in what opens like this window [diagram is missing] on privileged occasions, marks the illusory limit of this world of recognition, of the one that I call the stage. That it should be linked to this edge, to this framing, to this gap which is illustrated in this schema at least

twice, in this edge here of the mirror and moreover in this little sign, that this is the locus of anxiety, is what you ought always to retain as the signal of what is to be sought for in the middle.

The text of Freud to which I would ask you to refer, for it is a text that is always more stupefying to read because of this double aspect of weaknesses, of inadequacies which always present themselves to novices at the beginning as the first things to be picked out in the text of Freud and of the depth with which everything that he comes up against – reveals the degree to which Freud was here around this very field that we are trying to designate, of course, it is necessary first of all for you to be familiar with the text of Dora – can, for those who heard my discourse on the Symposium, recall this dimension always eluded when transference is involved, and of the other dimension in parenthesis, namely that transference is not simply something that reproduces a situation, an action, an attitude, an old trauma, and repeats it; the fact is that there is always another coordinate, the one on which I put the accent in connection with the analytic intervention of Socrates, namely specifically in the case where I evoke a love present in the real, and that we can understand nothing about transference if we do not know that it is also the consequence of that love, that it is in connection with this present love – and analysts should remember it during analyses – of a love which is present in different ways, but that at least they should remember it, when it is there visible, that it is in function of what we could call this real love that there is established what is the central question of transference, namely the one the subject poses concerning the agalma, namely what he is lacking. For it is with this lack that he loves. It is not for nothing that for years I have been repeating to you that love is to give what one does not have. This is even the principle of the castration complex: in order to have the phallus, in order to be able to make use of it, it is necessary precisely not to be it.

[VIII 74 ] When one returns to the conditions where it appears that one is it – for one is it just as much for a man, there is no doubt about it, and for a woman we will say again through what incidence she is led to become it – well then it is always very dangerous.

IX        23rd January 1963 : pIX 77 to pIX 88


The Direction of the Treatment and the Principles of its Power:10th-13th July 1958 : Jacques Lacan : Available here

Ego psychology and interpretation in psychoanalytic therapies (Case ‘fresh brains’) : December 1948 (New York) [1951] : Ernst Kris : Available here

Intellectual Inhibition & Disturbances in Eating (Dream ‘fresh brains’) : September 1933 [Published1938] : Melitta Schmideberg : Available here

Seminar X : 23rd January 1963:  pIX 85 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation :  I note the existence, in the Psychoanalytic Quarterly, of the article by Phyllis Greenacre; ….. It is a very interesting article in many ways…. : General Problems of Acting-out : May 1949 (Montreal, Canada) : Phyllis Greenacre : Available here

Seminar X : 23rd January 1963:  pIX 85 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : …. and evokes a memory for me: it was at the time about ten years ago when we had already received a visit from some investigators. : See Minutes of the meeting of the International Psychoanalytical Association : 30th July 1953 : Dr Heinz Hartmann (IPA President & Chairman of the Meeting) : Available here


Jacques Lacan comments Dream ‘fresh brains’ in Seminars I, III, VI & X and Function and Field of Speech and Language in Psychoanalysis : 26th & 27th September 1953 & Direction of the Treatment : 10th to 13th July 1958 : Available here

X          30th  January 1963 : pX 89 to pX 100


Probable reference to Sacha Nacht – see the note below.

Notes on Sacha Nacht What is concealed by the so-called “Cht” and why? : 9th March 2019 : Réginald Blanchet or here


(p4 of Ch X)   R : The analyst’s total response to his patient’s needs : 1957 : Margaret Little  See here

Barbara Low : The Psychological Compensations of the Analyst : 1935,  International Journal of Psychoanalysis (IJPA) Vol XVI January 1935 (Part 1),  See /authors a-z (Low) or authors by date (1935)       Texts by Barbara Low
Thomas Szasz : On the experiences of the analyst in the Psychoanalytic situation: a contribution to the theory of Psychoanalytic treatment : 14th October 1955 (Washington, USA). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association Vol 4 p199 – 223 (1956) Paper read at the Washington Psychoanalytic Society, 14th October 1955, and at the Midwinter Meeting of the American Psychoanalytic Association, New York, 3rd December 1955. Referenced by Jacques Lacan on Seminar X : 30th January 1963 – see   Further texts by Thomas Szasz  or download   /authors a-z (Szasz) or authors by date (October 1955)
Also of some relevance,

Psychoanalytic training – A Socio-Psychological Analysis of its history and present status : 1958 : Thomas S. Szasz, IJPA Vol 34 (1958) p598-613, See  /authors a-z (Szasz) or authors by date  (1958) : This is quoted on P586 of Bruce Fink’s translation of In Memory of Ernest Jones : On His Theory of Symbolism : January to March 1959 : Jacques Lacan, See  Écrits : 1966 : Jacques Lacan  or   Further texts by Thomas Szasz

Related text : Book Review of ‘The Myth of Mental Illness’ by Thomas Szasz (1961), published IJPA, v44, 1962, Reviewer – Charles Rycroft  See  /authors a-z (Szasz) or authors by date (1961).  Texts by Szasz
pX 90 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : probably  The Curative Factors in Psycho-Analysis : July-August 1961 (Edinburgh) : Sacha Nacht  or  here

pX 92 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : Countertransference and the Patient’s Response : 1951 : Margaret Little or here

XI        Missing from both this translation and the French 2004 version – see below.  This was a closed session when the Margaret Little,  Barbara Low & Thomas Szasz articles were commented on by Madame Aulagmier and Monsieur Granoff. (Julia Evans intends to produce a text  on this article to try to cover this gap.)

XII      27th February 1963 : pXII 102 to 108


PXII 107 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : Countertransference and the Patient’s Response : 1951 : Margaret Little or here

Countertransference: 1956: Lucia E. Tower  : Available here

Margaret Little (1957) op.cit. : See or  /authors a-z (Little)

Barbara Low (1935): op. cit.


The Sadeian position in Jacques Lacan’s Seminar X & LacanianWorks posts by Julia Evans on January 16, 2012 or here

XIII     6th March 1963 : pXIII 109 to pXIII 117

XIV     13th March 1963 : pXIV 118 to pXIV 127

Countertransference: 1956: Lucia E. Tower  : Available  here

XV      20th March 1963 : pXV 128 to pXV 138


Countertransference: 1956: Lucia E. Tower  or  here


See The finger in the sand by Bruno de Florence on May 16, 2012 or here  for a discussion of the reference to Merleau-Ponty and Sartre.

(p175) Some relations between Jacques Lacan and Søren Kierkegaard: Seminars II, VII, X, XVII, XX & two of the Écrits or here

XVI     27th March 1963 : pXVI 139 to pXVI 147

XVII    8th May 1963 : pXVII 148 to pXVII 159

Quotation from pXVII 156-157 given in On Lacan’s remarks on Chinese Poetry in Seminar XXIV : November 2009 : Adrian Price or here

XVIII  15th May 1963 : pXVIII 160 to pXVIII 169

XIX     22nd May 1963 : pXIX 170 to pXIX 179


p225 & 226: Chapter XIX of Cormac Gallagher’s translation.  This passage refers both to Theodor Reik & the ‘shofar’. Available here The Shofar (The Ram’s Horn): 1919: Theodor Reik or here

XX      29th May 1963 : pXX 180 to pXX 186

XXI     5th June 1963 : pXXI 187 to pXXI 194


Notes from the Reading Seminar VII Group on 5th January 2013 & 8th December 2012 (Seminar VII : 2nd & 9th December 1959 : p48) or here

Preliminary notes from Seminar VII: 2nd & 9th December 1959 : p38 & p48 (Jean-Bertrand Lefèvre-Pontalis’ intervention : meeting on 5th January 2013 & 8th December 2012 or here

XXII   12th June 1963 : pXXII 195 to pXXII 205

p291 of Adrian Price’s translation or pXXII 202-203 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : & p284 of Adrian Price’s translation or pXXII 199 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : & p281 of Adrian Price’s translation or pXXII 196 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : quoted in Towards Pipol 9, The unconscious and the brain, nothing in common, The argument by Yves Vanderveken : 22nd November 2019  or here

XXIII  19th June 1963 : pXXIII 206 to p217

Adonis Huxley: Adonis and the Alphabet (U.S. title: Tomorrow and Tomorrow and Tomorrow): 1956

XXIV  26th June 1963 : pXXIV 218 to pXXIV 227


Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena – a Study of the First Not-Me Possession : 30th May 1951 (London) [1953] : Donald W. Winnicott or here

XXV   3rd July 1963 : pXXV 228 to pXXV 237


Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena – a Study of the First Not-Me Possession : 30th May 1951 (London) [1953] : Donald W. Winnicott or here

The Concept of Dread (Anxiety) : 1844: Søren Kierkegaard : Available here.

Mourning and Melancholia: 1915 : Sigmund Freud : Published bilingual by or Penguin Freud Library (pfl):  Volume 11 “On Metapsychology”: p245-269


(p307-308, 309) Some relations between Jacques Lacan and Søren Kierkegaard: Seminars II, VII, X, XVII, XX & two of the Écrits or here

pXXV 237 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : The function of the anxiety : 13th July 2006 (Rome) : François Leguil or here

Melancholia, the Pain of Existence and Moral Cowardice : October1988 : Éric Laurent or here

References to be chased up:

‘preying mantis’ 3rd July 1963 & there are others……..


– Date of Sessions, Chapter number & Jacques-Alain Miller’s (Editor) headings & subtitles: Reference to Adrian Price’s translation :

For availability see beginning of post


– I. Anxiety in the Net of Signifiers : 14th November 1962: p3 to 15

Subtitles :The desire of the Other

Towards an orography of anxiety

Seriousness, care, expectation

Inhibition, impediment, embarrassment

Inhibition, emotion, turmoil

– II. Anxiety, Sign of Desire : 21stNovember 1962 : p16 to 28

An ideal of straightforwardness

Hagel and Lacan

The desire of the Other in five formulae

Division and its remainder

I desire you, even if I know it not

– III. From the Cosmos to the unheimliche: 28thNovember 1962 : p29 to 42

The specular and the signifier

From the world to the world’s stage

Hamlet and the stage on the stage

Lévi-Strauss’s serenity

Anything whatsoever in the blank of the phallus

– IV. Beyond Castration Anxiety : 5th December 1962 : p43 to 54

The object as a spare part

The Hoffmannian object

The object postiche

The object-demand

The object that is not missing

– V. That Which Deceives : 12th December 1962 : p55 to 68

Pavlov, Goldstein and the Other’s demand

Jones and the Other’s jouissance

The traces of the subject

The cuts of the drive

Pascal and the vacuum experiment

– VI. That Which Deceives Not : 19th December 1962 : p69 to 82

One of Ferenczi’s precious points

Anxiety is framed

Anxiety is not without object

From anxiety to action

On the demands of the God of the Jews


– VII. Not Without Having It: 9th January 1963 : p85 to 99






– VIII. The Cause of Desire : 16th January 1963 : p100 to 113

The object behind desire

The sadist’s identification with the fetish object

The masochist’s identification with the common object

The presence of real love in transference

The young homosexual woman, dropped

– IX. Passage à l’acte and Acting-out : 23rdJanuary 1963 : p114 to 130


The natal cut

The jouissance of the symptom

The lies of the unconscious

Freud’s passion

– X. On a Lack that is Irreducible to the Signifier : 30th January 1963 : p131 to 146

Differential topology of holes

A lack for which the symbol cannot compensate

The object in transference

Margaret Little and her capital R


– XI. Punctuations on Desire : 27th February 1963 : p147 to 155

From countertransference to the analyst’s desire

Desire as a will to jouissance

Desire, from conflict to love


– XII. Anxiety, Signal of the Real : 6th March 1963 : p157 to 169

Chekhov’s panic fears

Agatha and Lucy

Perversion and the Other’s anxiety

The mamma and the deciduous object

From detumescence to castration

– XIII. Aphorisms on Love : 13thMarch 1963 : p170 to 181

Negation in Russian

Desire and the professor

The subject of jouissance

The ais not a signifier

Man and woman

Then 4 lines of Russian script

– XIV. Woman, Truer and More Real : 20thMarch 1963 :  p182 to 196

Tiresias struck blind

The hole, the void, and the pot

Woman lacks nothing

Don Juan, a woman’s dream

Lucia Tower and her desire

– XV. Men’s Business : 27th March 1963 : p197 to 211

Lucia Tower and the Oedipal comedy

What lacks, men’s business

What is ridiculously termed perversion

A vessel with neither inside nor outside

Circumcision, an insitution


– XVI. Buddhas’s Eyelids : 8thMay 1963 : p213 to 229

The cuase, a syncope of the object

The certainty of anxiety

The Jews and the function of the remnant

Christian masochism

Man or woman?

– XVII. The Mouth and the Eye : 15thMay 1963 : p230 to 242

The lips, the teeth, and the tongue

The nursling, parasite

The anxiety-point and the point of desire

Anxiety and orgasm

The scopic cancelling-out of castration

– XVIII. The Voice of Yahweh : 22ndMay 1963 : p243 to 255

Reik and the use of the symbol

The sound of the shofar

May God remember

The function of the beauty spot

What regard us

– XIX. The Evanescent Phallus : 29th May 1963 : p256 to 266

The pedagogy of castration

Jouissance in the fantasy

The Wolf Man’s defecation

Always too soon

The dead ends of desire

– XX. What Comes in Through the Ear : 5th June 1963 : p267 to 278

Deceptive phallic might

The infant’s monologue

Isakower’s prawn

The incorporation of the voice

The Gods ensnared in desire

– XXI. Piaget’s Tap : 12th June 1963 : p279 to 293

The category of cause

Forming the symptom

A matter of understanding

Water and desires

The five levels in the constitution of the a

– XXII. From Anal to Ideal : 19thJune 1963 : p294 to 309

The object’s circular constitution

The origin of the cause

Jones and the Immaculate Conception

To love beyond the phallus

The desire of the gods

– XXIII. On a Circle that is Irreducible to a Point : 26th June 1963 : p310 to 323

On the yieldable object

On defence-desire

On the act and deeds

On the phallic hole and its stand-ins

Love and desire in the obsessional

– XXIV. From the a to the Names-of-the-Father : 3rd July 1963 : p324 to 337

The scopic masking of the object a

Birth as an intrusion of the Other

To separate and to hold back

Mourning, mania and melancholia

The voice, the father, the name, and love

– Note to the Text:  : p339

Jacques-Alain Miller (Editor) writes : The reader will have noticed that in the first chapter (Seminar X : 14th November 1962 – p12 of Adrian Price’s translation) Lacan calls out to his audience to confirm whether the word smagare exists in Italian and the reply he receives leads him to conclude that some doubt remains. On the typescript copy addressed to his daughter (Judith Miller) bearing a dedication dated 16th November 1962, thus two days after the first lesson, the following detail features in the margin: ‘Here, I called out to Piera – who suggested this doubt to me – but since then I’ve checked things out and smagare does indeed carry the meaning that B. & W. (Bloch & von Wartburg) give it.’

An annotation in the margin identifies the author of the article Lacan had been expecting: ‘This refers to a piece of work by Green on The Savage Mind ‘. André green’s review of Lévi-Strauss’s book subsequently appeared in the journal Critique.

– Notes : p340

– Index : p341


– Angst and Anxiety in Freud:

Sigmund Freud uses the term ‘angst’. This has been translated by James Strachey as ‘anxiety’. This is a mistake & should be changed to anguish or angst.

Translations from the internet:

Angst: anxiety; fear; fright; panic; terror; stuffiness; oppression; heaviness; sinking feeling

Angst → anxiety, fear, fright, dread

Angst → fear of failure, anxiety, anguish, dread, apprehension, fear, fright, trepidation, alarm

Jacques Lacan, who read Sigmund Freud in the German original, translates from German into French as ‘l’angoisse’.

Cormac Gallagher & Adrian Price both translate ‘l’angoisse’ as ‘Anxiety’. This is a mistake. It is almost certain that Seminar X should be called, Of Anguish (de l’angoisse) & the references to ‘anxiety’ should be changed to anguish.

Julia Evans – July 2022

 Draft E How Anxiety Originates : 6th June 1894? : Sigmund Freud: See here

P81 of Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson’s translation :

If one accepts the theory so far, one has to insist that in anxiety neurosis there must be a deficit to be noted in sexual affect, in psychic libido, And this is confirmed by observation. If this connection is put before women patients, they are always indignant and declare that on the contrary they now have no desire whatever, and similar statements. Men often confirm the observation that since suffering from anxiety they have felt no sexual desire.

P81 of  Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson’s translation : An alienation is artificially brought about between the physicosexual act and its psychic working over. If the endogenous tension then increases further on its own account, it cannot be worked over and generates anxiety. Here libido can be present, but not at the same time as anxiety. Thus here psychic refusal is followed by psychic alienation; tension of endogenous origin is followed by induced tension.

P82 of  Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson’s translation :

On the whole the agreement is not so bad. Where there is an abundant development of physical sexual tension, but this cannot be turned into affect by psychic working over – because of insufficient development of psychic sexuality or because of the attempted suppression of the latter (defense), or of its falling into decay, or because of habitual alienation between physical and psychic sexuality – the sexual tension is transformed into anxiety. Thus a part is played in this by the accumulation of physical tension and the prevention of discharge in the psychic direction.

But why does the transformation take place specifically into anxiety? Anxiety is the sensation of the accumulation of another endogenous stimulus, the stimulus to breathing, a stimulus incapable of being worked over psychically apart from this; anxiety might therefore be employed for accumulated physical tension in general. Furthermore, if the symptoms of anxiety neurosis are examined more closely, one finds in the neurosis disjointed pieces of a major anxiety attack: namely, mere dyspnea, mere palpitations, mere feeling of anxiety, and a combination of these. Looked at more precisely, these are the paths of innervation that the physical sexual tension, ordinarily traverses even when it is about to be worked over psychically. [The dyspnea and palpitations belong to coitus; and while ordinarily they are employed only as subsidiary paths of discharge here they serve, so to speak, as the only outlets for the excitation.] This is once again a kind of conversion in anxiety neurosis, just as occurs in hysteria (another instance of their similarity); but in hysteria it is psychic excitation that takes a wrong path exclusively into the somatic field, where as here it is a physical tension, which can not enter the psychic field and therefore remains on the physical path. The two are very often combined.

That is as far as I have got today. The gaps badly need filling. I think it is incomplete, I lack something; but I believe the foundation is right .

 LECTURE XXV (Lecture 25 – Anxiety) : 1917 : in Part III – General Theory of the Neuroses of Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis: 1915-1917 (Published 1916-1917) : Sigmund Freud :

Download translated by James Strachey and with notes, PFL, at  /freud (1917)

Freud’s Lecture 25 – Anxiety. See footnote 2 & 3 near the beginning for the translator’s note of the difference between Angst and Anxiety. & 3 or 4 pages in where Freud states

‘I will only say that I think ‘Angst’ relates to the state and disregards the object’ … ‘A certain ambiguity and indefiniteness in the use of the word ‘Angst’ will not have escaped you. By ‘anxiety’ we usually understand the subjective state into which we are put by perceiving the ‘generation of anxiety’ and we call this an affect. … But I do not think that with this enumeration we have arrived at the essence of an affect. We seem to see deeper in the case of some affects and to recognise that the core which holds the combination we have described together is the repetition of some particular significant experience.’ 2 pages further on ‘If we now pass over to consider neurotic anxiety, what fresh forms and situations are manifested by anxiety in neurotics?’ I am happy to leave this as is but Angoisse must always be distinguished from other forms of anxiety such as fear and so on.


– Note about Sacha Nacht & Timeline

Further notes on Sacha Nacht What is concealed by the so-called “Cht” and why? : 9th March 2019 : Réginald Blanchet or here

Relevant Session to be located:

The following reference was found on the internet as belonging to Sem X. Following a thorough search of Sem X, I became suspicious as it is nowhere…  :

Sacha Nacht (1961): Presented to the 22nd International Psychoanalytic Conference in Edinburgh: July to August 1961: ‘The curative factors in psychoanalysis’. Published in the International Journal of Psycho-analysis: Vol 43: 1963: p206 – 211.  See  The Curative Factors in Psycho-Analysis : July-August 1961 (Edinburgh) : Sacha Nacht  or   here

Possibly Seminar X : 12th December 1962 : pV 37 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : For that matter moreover, I was preceded in this by the inventor of psychoanalysis himself who was indeed, as far as I know, someone who was at the level of a direct experience, that of patients, of mental patients, of those especially that are called with a greater rigor since Freud, neurotics.

But after all, this would not be a reason for remaining any longer than necessary on an epistemological questioning, if the place of desire, the way in which in which it hollows itself out (se creuse), was not at every instant – at every instant in our therapeutic position – presentified for us through a problem, which is the most concrete one of all, that of not allowing ourselves to engage on a false path, of not responding to it in the wrong way, of not responding inexactly to it, at least of considering recognised a certain goal that we pursue and which is not so clear. I remember having provoked indignation in the sort of colleague who knows on occasion how to barricade himself behind some bombast or other of fine sentiments designed to reassure someone or other, to have provoked indignation by saying that in analysis a cure only came in a way as a bonus.

This was seen as some sort of disdain for the one that we are responsible for, the person who is suffering. I was speaking from a methodological point of view. It is quite certain that our justification as well as our duty is to ameliorate the position of the subject. And I claim that nothing is more uncertain in the field that we are in than the concept of a cure.

Is an analysis which ends with the entry of the male or female patient into the third order a cure, even if the subject finds himself improved as regards his symptoms, and in a certain way, a certain order that he has reconquered enunciates the most express reservations about the ways, now seen by him as perverse, through which we have made him pass in order to make him enter [12.12.62 V 38] the kingdom of heaven.

Possibly Seminar X : 30th January 1963 : pX 90 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : What I would simply like to designate here, is that in connection with this case which is favourable and, if you wish, chosen in a part of the field particularly favourable to this problematic, what is decisive in this factor of progress which consists essentially in introducing the function of the cut.

See Seminar IV : The Object Relation & Freudian Structures 1956-1957 : begins 21st November 1956 : Jacques Lacan or here  for further reference to Sacha Nacht.

A Timeline

Further researches reveal the following (adapted from ‘Chronology: p209 to 211 of Dany Nobus: ‘Jacques Lacan and the Freudian Practice of Psychoanalysis’: Routledge: 2000):

1926, 4 November: creation of the Société Psychanalytique de Paris (SPP), the first association of French psychoanalysts.

1934, November: Lacan becomes a candidate (membre adhérent) of the SPP.

1936, 3 August:  Lacan attends the 14th Congress of the IPA at Marienbad (Máriánské Láznē, Czech Republic), where he presents ‘Le stade du miroir’.

1938, December:  Lacan finishes his analysis with Loewenstein and becomes a full member (membre titulaire) of the SPP.

1940, June: installation of the Vichy regime. The SPP suspends all its activities.

1946:  the SPP resumes its activities.

1948:  Lacan becomes a member of the Teaching Committee (Commission de l’Enseignement) of the SPP.

1949, 17 July:  Lacan attends the 16th Congress of the IPA in Zurich, where he presents another paper on the mirror-stage.

1951:  Lacan introduces sessions of variable length in his practice; this worries the other members of the SPP. During the following years he regularly explains his position without managing to convince his colleagues. Meanwhile, he gives a seminar on Freud’s Dora-case at his house, …

1951, 2 May:  ‘Some reflections on the Ego’, lecture at the British Psychoanalytic Society.

1951-1952: Seminar on Freud’s case of the Wolf Man.

1952, Summer:  Sacha Nacht (1901-1977), president of the SPP, presents his views on the organization of a new training institute (Institut de Psychanalyse).

1952, December:  Nacht resigns as director of the Institute, and Lacan is elected new director ad interim.

1952-1953:  Lacan’s seminar on Freud’s case of the Rat Man.

1953, 20 January:  Lacan is elected president of the SPP. Creation of the Société Française de Psychanalyse (SFP) by Daniel Lagache (1903-1972), Françoise Dolto (1908-1988) and Juliette Favez-Boutonnier (1903-1994); Lacan joins soon after.

1953, 8 July: Lacan gives the opening lecture at the SFP on the symbolic, the imaginary and the real.

1955, July: the IPA rejects the SFP’s request for affiliation.

1956, Winter:  first issue of the journal La Psychanalyse, containing Lacan’s ‘Rome Discourse, 23 September 1953’ and his translation of Heidegger’s ‘Logos’ 1951.

1959, July: the SFP renews its request for affiliation to the IPA. Nomination of a committee of enquiry.

1961, August: the SFP is accepted as an IPA Study Group on the condition that Lacan and Dolto are progressively removed from their training positions.

1963, August: the IPA stipulates that the SFP will lose its status if Lacan continues to be involved in training matters.

1963, 19 November:  a majority of SFP members decide to accept the IPA recommendation.

1963, 20 November: first and final session of Lacan’s seminar on ‘The Names-of-the-Father’.

1964, January:  Lacan starts a seminar on the foundations of psychoanalysis at the École Normale Supérieure (Rue d’Ulm. Paris), where he lectures under the auspices of the École Pratique des Hautes Études, a post for which Claude Lévi-Strauss and Louis Althusser have intervened on his behalf.

1964, 21 June:  Lacan found the École Freudienne de Paris (EFP).

1964, October:  final issue (8) of La Psychanalyse.

1965, 19 January: dissolution of the SFP (end of extract)

So Lacan and Nacht have form, is the background for this reference.  Nacht presents this text in 1961 just as steps are taken to remove Lacan from his training position.  I will add to this when I have seen this text which precedes Lacan’s Seminar X, The Anxiety or Dread, given 1962 to 1963.


Julia Evans

Practicing Lacanian Psychoanalyst


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