The Curative Factors in Psycho-Analysis : July-August 1961 (Edinburgh) : Sacha Nacht

by Julia Evans on August 1, 1961

Index of post

1)  Publication and availability

2) Availability of Nacht’s references

3) Links to Jacques Lacan & Seminar X

4)  Related texts

1)  Publication and availability

Published, in translation, in the International Journal of Psychoanalysis (IJPA) v43 1963 p206-211

Available at  /authors a-z (Nacht) or authors by date (August 1961)

The background to this reference is the conflict between Jacques Lacan & Sacha Nacht.  See Section 3.  Nacht presents this text in 1961 just as steps are taken to remove Lacan from his training position. It is probable that this paper was referred to obliquely in Seminar X : 12th December 1962 & 30th January 1962.

2) Availability of Nacht’s references

[4]  Papers on Technique : 1911-1915 :  Sigmund Freud

SE XII p84-173 :  Published, bilingual, by /Freud: The Metapsychological Papers, Papers on Technique and others (Papers on technique)

[5]  Analysis Terminable & Interminable: 1937c : Sigmund Freud

SE XXIII, p209-54   Published, bilingual, at   /Homepage (Analysis Terminable and Interminable (Die endliche und die unendliche Analyse))

[8] & [9]  H. Hartmann Of relevance?

Heinz Hartmann : 30th July 1953 (Amsterdam) : Minutes of the meeting of the International Psychoanalytical Association : Information   

& Letter  21st July 1953  Letter to Heinz Hartmann : 21st July 1953 : Jacques Lacan or

[9] & [11] R. Loewenstein

Rudolf Loewenstein was Jacques Lacan’s & Sacha Nacht’s analyst. He was involved in the events around 1953.  History below

[16]  Sacha Nacht ‘La Thérapeutique psychanalytique’ in La Psychanalyse d’aujourd’hui (Paris: Presses Univerx, 1956 – see La thérapeutique psychanalytique (Psychoanalytic Therapy) : 1956 : Sacha Nacht  or or or

Many references to this in Seminar IV,  See Seminar IV : The Relation of/from Object & Freudian Structures 1956-1957 : begins 21st November 1956 : Jacques Lacan  or

Further papers by Sacha Nacht at  or  /authors by date or authors a-z

3) Links to Jacques Lacan

There is a history of conflict between Jacques Lacan & Sacha Nacht.  

The following reference was found on the internet in 2011 as belonging to Sem X. Following a thorough search of Seminar X, I became suspicious as it is nowhere…  :

Sacha Nacht (1961): Presented to the 22nd International Psychoanalytic Conference in Edinburgh: July to August 1961: ‘The curative factors in psychoanalysis’. Published in the International Journal of Psycho-analysis: Vol 43: 1963: p206 – 211.  

Possible references in Seminar X to this paper.

Possibly Seminar X : 12th December 1962 : pV 37 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : For that matter moreover, I was preceded in this by the inventor of psychoanalysis himself who was indeed, as far as I know, someone who was at the level of a direct experience, that of patients, of mental patients, of those especially that are called with a greater rigor since Freud, neurotics. 

But after all, this would not be a reason for remaining any longer than necessary on an epistemological questioning, if the place of desire, the way in which in which it hollows itself out (se creuse), was not at every instant – at every instant in our therapeutic position – presentified for us through a problem, which is the most concrete one of all, that of not allowing ourselves to engage on a false path, of not responding to it in the wrong way, of not responding inexactly to it, at least of considering recognised a certain goal that we pursue and which is not so clear. I remember having provoked indignation in the sort of colleague who knows on occasion how to barricade himself behind some bombast or other of fine sentiments designed to reassure someone or other, to have provoked indignation by saying that in analysis a cure only came in a way as a bonus. 

This was seen as some sort of disdain for the one that we are responsible for, the person who is suffering. I was speaking from a methodological point of view. It is quite certain that our justification as well as our duty is to ameliorate the position of the subject. And I claim that nothing is more uncertain in the field that we are in than the concept of a cure. 

Is an analysis which ends with the entry of the male or female patient into the third order a cure, even if the subject finds himself improved as regards his symptoms, and in a certain way, a certain order that he has reconquered enunciates the most express reservations about the ways, now seen by him as perverse, through which we have made him pass in order to make him enter [12.12.62 V 38] the kingdom of heaven.

Possibly Seminar X : 30th January 1963 : pX 90 of Cormac Gallagher’s translation : What I would simply like to designate here, is that in connection with this case which is favourable and, if you wish, chosen in a part of the field particularly favourable to this problematic, what is decisive in this factor of progress which consists essentially in introducing the function of the cut. 

Further researches reveal the following (adapted from ‘Chronology: p209 to 211 of Dany Nobus: ‘Jacques Lacan and the Freudian Practice of Psychoanalysis’: Routledge: 2000):

1926, 4 November: creation of the Société Psychanalytique de Paris (SPP), the first association of French psychoanalysts.

1934, November: Lacan becomes a candidate (membre adhérent) of the SPP.

1936, 3 August:  Lacan attends the 14th Congress of the IPA at Marienbad (Máriánské Láznē, Czech Republic), where he presents ‘Le stade du miroir’.

1938, December:  Lacan finishes his analysis with Loewenstein and becomes a full member (membre titulaire) of the SPP.

1940, June: installation of the Vichy regime. The SPP suspends all its activities.

1946:  the SPP resumes its activities.

1948:  Lacan becomes a member of the Teaching Committee (Commission de l’Enseignement) of the SPP.

1949, 17 July:  Lacan attends the 16th Congress of the IPA in Zurich, where he presents another paper on the mirror-stage. See Mirror Stage: 16th June 1936 (Paris), 3rd August 1936 (Marienbad), 1938, 17th July 1949 (Zurich), 1966: Jacques Lacan  or

1951:  Lacan introduces sessions of variable length in his practice; this worries the other members of the SPP. During the following years he regularly explains his position without managing to convince his colleagues. Meanwhile, he gives a seminar on Freud’s Dora-case at his house, …  See  Intervention on the Transference (Paris): Seminar on ‘Dora’ – 1950-1951: October 16th 1951: Jacques Lacan  or  

1951, 2 May:  ‘Some reflections on the Ego’, lecture at the British Psychoanalytic Society.

See Some Reflections on the Ego (London?) : 2nd May 1951 : Jacques Lacan or    

1951-1952: Seminar on Freud’s case of the Wolf Man.  Notes on the Wolfman : 4 sessions from 1951-1952 : Jacques Lacan or

1952, Summer:  Sacha Nacht (1901-1977), president of the SPP, presents his views on the organization of a new training institute (Institut de Psychanalyse).

1952, December:  Nacht resigns as director of the Institute, and Lacan is elected new director ad interim.

1952-1953:  Lacan’s seminar on Freud’s case of the Rat Man. See The Neurotic’s Individual Myth : (Collège de Philosophique, Paris) : 4th March 1953 : Jacques Lacan or

1953, 20 January:  Lacan is elected president of the SPP. Creation of the Société Française de Psychanalyse (SFP) by Daniel Lagache (1903-1972), Françoise Dolto (1908-1988) and Juliette Favez-Boutonnier (1903-1994); Lacan joins soon after.

1953, 8 July: Lacan gives the opening lecture at the SFP on the symbolic, the imaginary and the real.

1955, July: the IPA rejects the SFP’s request for affiliation.

1956, Winter:  first issue of the journal La Psychanalyse, containing Lacan’s ‘Rome Discourse, 23 September 1953’, see Rome Discourses – to introduce his report (Rome) : 26th September 1953 : Jacques Lacan  or, and his translation of Heidegger’s ‘Logos’ 1951. See Translation of Heidegger’s essay on ‘Heraclitus Logos’ : Winter 1956 : Jacques Lacan  or  here    

1959, July: the SFP renews its request for affiliation to the IPA. Nomination of a committee of enquiry.

1961, August: the SFP is accepted as an IPA Study Group on the condition that Lacan and Dolto are progressively removed from their training positions.

1963, August: the IPA stipulates that the SFP will lose its status if Lacan continues to be involved in training matters.

1963, 19 November:  a majority of SFP members decide to accept the IPA recommendation.

1963, 20 November: first and final session of Lacan’s seminar on ‘The Names-of-the-Father’.

1964, January:  Lacan starts a seminar on the foundations of psychoanalysis at the École Normale Supérieure (Rue d’Ulm. Paris), where he lectures under the auspices of the École Pratique des Hautes Études, a post for which Claude Lévi-Strauss and Louis Althusser have intervened on his behalf.

1964, 21 June:  Lacan found the École Freudienne de Paris (EFP).

1964, October:  final issue (8) of La Psychanalyse.

1965, 19 January: dissolution of the SFP (end of extract)

So Lacan and Nacht have form and is the background for this reference.  Nacht presents this text in 1961 just as steps are taken to remove Lacan from his training position.  I will add to this when I have seen this text which precedes Lacan’s Seminar X, The Anxiety or Dread, given 1962 to 1963.

4)  Related Texts

Quoted Seminar IV : 21st November 1956  La thérapeutique psychanalytique (Psychoanalytic Therapy) : 1956 : Sacha Nacht  or

See Seminar IV : The Object Relation & Freudian Structures 1956-1957 : begins 21st November 1956 : Jacques Lacan or  for further notes on Sacha Nacht

Seminar X Seminar X: The Anxiety (or Dread): 1962-1963: begins 14th November 1962: Jacques Lacan   or

Texts on Seminar X

Notes & References for Jacques Lacan’s Seminar IV : 21st November 1956 by  Julia Evans on 28th February 2017 or  

Notes on Sacha Nacht : What is concealed by the so-called “Cht” and why? : 9th March 2019 : Réginald Blanchet or

Joan Copjec (Editor) : Television: A Challenge to the Psychoanalytic Establishment : 1990 : Information

Joan Copjec : Dossier on the Institutional Debate, An Introduction : 1990 : Information    

Note : 

If links to any required text do not work, check If a particular text or book’s link does not work, contact Julia Evans


 Julia Evans   

Practicing Lacanian Psychoanalyst


Other texts

Click on categories in the right hand margin, then scroll down.

Further papers by Sacha Nacht at  or  /authors by date or authors a-z

‘The Symbolic in the 21st century’


Definitions of humanness  

By Sigmund Freud  

Notes on texts by Sigmund Freud  

By Jacques Lacan   

Notes on texts by Jacques Lacan   

Use of power  

Of the clinic  

Ordinary Psychosis

On autism

Lacanian Transmission

Some Lacanian History  


From LW working groups  

By Julia Evans